Abstract elective surgery requires planned incisions and incisions require appropriate blades in the prehistoric era division of the umbilical cord and other minor procedures were probably undertaken with human teeth and nails and later with plant animal and mineral substitutes as witnessed by studies of primitive societies still surviving or recently extinct. Full text full text is available as a scanned copy of the original print version get a printable copy pdf file of the complete article 30m or click on a page image below to browse page by page. Full facsimile of the original edition not reproduced with optical recognition software hardbound cloth oversized octavo 114 pages with index this important little book contains an account of the evolution of surgical instruments as illustrated by examples formerly in the museum of the royal college of surgeons of england. The evolution of surgical instruments is the first comprehensive work on the subject published in over sixty years and arguably the most important general history of surgical instruments ever published. Pdf on aug 1 1981 j r kirkup and others published the history and evolution of surgical instruments i introduction
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